Baking soda, Baking Powder, Buttermilk and the Southern Housewife!
 
We prefer pastry flour for biscuits, pastries, waffles and cakes.  Buttermilk is the preferable liquid as teh latic acid in the buttermik, the clabber or sour milk, acts on teh starches the result being a sweet, moist bread.
 
When using buttermilk and saida, the rule is a half teaspoon of soda for each cup (half pint) of tart buttermilk.
 
There are many that do prefer sweet milk and baking powder. The standard measurement of baking powder, when using sweet milk, is two teapsoons for each cup of flour.  In many of a Southern housewife's breads, she will prefer buttermilk with soda and a small amount of baking powder, which gives a light fluffy result. This lessens labor (beating) and the number of eggs called for in a recipe.
 
 
 
 
* When mincing garlic, sprinkle on a little salt so the pieces won't
   stick to your knife or cutting board. 

 * Sunlight doesn't ripen tomatoes, warmth does. Store tomatoes with
   stems pointed down and they will stay fresher, longer.

 * Two drops of yellow food coloring added to boiling noodles will
   make them look homemade.

 * Put meat used for stir frying in freezer for 45 min. to 1 hr. to
   make slicing easier.

 * Keep popcorn fresh and encourage more kernels to pop by storing in
   the freezer.

 * Pancakes are lighter and fluffier when you substitute club soda
   for milk in the batter.



Conversion Table for U.S. and Metric

U.S. CUPS TO GRAMS

All-Purpose Flour and Confectioners' Sugar

1/8 cup = 15 grams
1/4 cup = 30 grams
1/3 cup = 40 grams
3/8 cup = 45 grams
1/2 cup = 60 grams
5/8 cup = 70 grams
2/3 cup = 75 grams
3/4 cup = 85 grams
7/8 cup = 100 grams
1 cup = 110 grams

Flaked Coconut

1/8 cup = 10 grams
1/4 cup = 20 grams
1/3 cup = 25 grams
3/8 cup = 30 grams
1/2 cup = 40 grams
5/8 cup = 45 grams
2/3 cup = 50 grams
3/4 cup = 60 grams
7/8 cup = 65 grams
1 cup = 75 grams

Brown Sugar

1/8 cup = 25 grams
1/4 cup = 50 grams
1/3 cup = 65 grams
3/8 cup = 75 grams
1/2 cup = 100 grams
5/8 cup = 125 grams
2/3 cup = 135 grams
3/4 cup = 150 grams
7/8 cup = 175 grams
1 cup = 200 grams

Granulated Sugar

1/8 cup = 30 grams
1/4 cup = 55 grams
1/3 cup = 75 grams
3/8 cup = 85 grams
1/2 cup = 115 grams
5/8 cup = 140 grams
2/3 cup = 150 grams
3/4 cup = 170 grams
7/8 cup = 200 grams
1 cup = 225 grams

Butter or Margarine

1/8 cup = 30 grams
1/4 cup = 55 grams
1/3 cup = 75 grams
3/8 cup = 85 grams
1/2 cup = 115 grams
5/8 cup = 140 grams
2/3 cup = 150 grams
3/4 cup = 170 grams
7/8 cup = 200 grams
1 cup = 225 grams

Grated Coconut

1/8 cup = 10 grams
1/4 cup = 25 grams
1/3 cup = 35 grams
3/8 cup = 40 grams
1/2 cup = 50 grams
5/8 cup = 60 grams
2/3 cup = 65 grams
3/4 cup = 75 grams
7/8 cup = 85 grams
1 cup = 100 grams

Cake Flour

1/8 cup = 10 grams
1/4 cup = 20 grams
1/3 cup = 25 grams
3/8 cup = 30 grams
1/2 cup = 50 grams
5/8 cup = 60 grams
2/3 cup = 65 grams
3/4 cup = 70 grams
7/8 cup = 85 grams
1 cup = 95 grams

Ground Almonds

1/8 cup = 20 grams
1/4 cup = 40 grams
1/3 cup = 55 grams
3/8 cup = 65 grams
1/2 cup = 85 grams
5/8 cup = 105 grams
2/3 cup = 110 grams
3/4 cup = 130 grams
7/8 cup = 150 grams
1 cup = 170 grams

Cocoa

1/8 cup = 15 grams
1/4 cup = 30 grams
1/3 cup = 40 grams
3/8 cup = 45 grams
1/2 cup = 60 grams
5/8 cup = 70 grams
2/3 cup = 75 grams
3/4 cup = 85 grams
7/8 cup = 100 grams
1 cup = 125 grams

Slivered Almonds

1/8 cup = 10 grams
1/4 cup = 20 grams
1/3 cup = 25 grams
3/8 cup = 30 grams
1/2 cup = 40 grams
5/8 cup = 50 grams
2/3 cup = 55 grams
3/4 cup = 60 grams
7/8 cup = 70 grams
1 cup = 80 grams

 

U.S. EQUIVALENTS

METRIC

Dash less than 1/8 teaspoon    
1 teaspoon 60 drops 1 1/3 fluid grams 5 ml.
1 tablespoon 3 teaspoons 4 fluid grams 15 ml.
2 tablespoons 1 fluid ounce   30 ml.
4 tablespoons 1/4 cup   60 ml.
5 1/3 tablespoons 1/3 cup   80 ml.
6 tablespoons 3/8 cup   90 ml.
8 tablespoons 1/2 cup   120 ml.
10 2/3 tablespoons 2/3 cup   160 ml.
12 tablespoons 3/4 cup   180 ml.
16 tablespoons 1 cup or 8 ounces   240 ml.
1 cup 1/2 pint or 8 fluid ounces   240 ml. or .236 liter (1/4 liter)
2 cups 1 pint   480 ml.
1 pint 16 ounces   480 ml. or .473 liter
4 1/3 cups 1 quart 2 ounces   1 liter (1,000 milliliters)
1 quart 2 pints   960 ml. or .946 liter
2.1 pints 1.05 quarts or .26 gallons   1 liter
2 quarts 1/2 gallon    
4 quarts 1 gallon   3.785 liters
.035 ounces   1 gram  
2.205 pounds   1 kilogram  
1 ounce 16 drams 28 grams  
1 pound (16 ounces)   453.6 grams  
1 pound (2 cups liquid)      
2.20 pounds   1 kilo  

LINEAR LENGTH

CENTIMETERS

1 inch
1 foot
1 yard
1 meter

2.54 centimeters
30.48 centimeters
91.44 centimeters
39.37 inches

LIQUID MEASURE

MILLILITERS

1/4 teaspoon
1/2 teaspoon
3/4 teaspoon
1 teaspoon
1 1/4 teaspoons
1 1/2 teaspoons
1 3/4 teaspoons
2 teaspoons
1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons

1.25 ml
2.5 ml
3.75 ml
5.0 ml
6.25 ml
7.5 ml
8.75 ml
10.0 ml
15.0 ml
30 ml

 

LITERS

1/4 cup
1/2 cup
3/4 cup
1 cup
1 1/4 cups
1 1/2 cups
2 cups
2 1/2 cups
3 cups
3 1/2 cups
4 cups
4 1/2 cups
5 cups
5 1/2 cups

0.061
0.121
0.181
0.241
.31
0.361
0.481
0.61
0.721
0.841
0.961
1.08
1.21
1.321

 
 
 
 
 
Oven Temperatures
 

Instruction

Fahrenheit (F)

Celsius (C)

Very slow oven 250F 120C
Slow oven 300F 150C
Moderately slow oven 325F 165C
Moderate oven 350F 175C
Moderately hot oven 375F 190C
Hot (or quick) oven 400F 205C
Very hot oven 450F 230C
Extremely hot oven 500F 260C

Pan Sizes

4-cup baking dish 9-inch pie plate
8 x 1 1/4-inch layer cake pan
7 3/8 x 3 5/8 x 2 1/4-inch loaf pan
6-cup baking dish 8 or 9 x 1 1/2-inch layer cake pan
10-inch pie plate
8 1/2 x 3 5/8 x 2 5/8-inch loaf pan
8-cup baking dish 8 x 8 x 2-inch square pan
11 x 7 x 1 1/2-inch baking pan
9 x 5 x 3-inch loaf pan
10-cup baking dish 9 x 9 x 2-inch square pan
11 3/4 x 7 1/2 x 1 3/4-inch baking pan
15 x 10 x 1-inch jellyroll pan
12-cup baking dish and over 13 1/2 x 8 1/2 3 2-inch glass baking pan - 12 cups
13 x 9 x 2-inch metal baking pan - 15 cups
14 x 10 1/2 x 2 1/2-inch roasting pan - 19 cups
Brioche Pan 9 1/2 x 3 1/2-inch pan - 8 cups
Cake Pans 8-inch square
9-inch square
13 x9 x 2-inch - 14 to 15 cups
14 x 10 x 2-inch
Charlotte Mold 6 x 4 1/4-inch mold - 7 1/2 cups
Jellyroll Pan 15 x 10 x 1-inch - 10 cups
Loaf Pans 8 x 4 x 2 1/2-inch - 6 cups
9 x 5 x 3-inch - 8 cups
Melon Mold 7 x 5 1/2 x 4-inch mold - 6 cups
Pie Pans 9-inch - 4 cups
Ring Molds 8 1/2 x 2 1/4-inch mold - 4 1/2 cups
9 1/4 x 2 3/4-inch mold - 8 cups
Springform Pans 9 x 2 1/2-inch pan - 10 cups
9 x 3-inch pan - 12 cups
10 x 2 1/2-inch pan - 12 cups
Tube Pans 7 1/2 x 3-inch Bundt tube pan - 6 cups
9 x 3 1/2-inch fancy tube or Bundt pan - 9 cups
9 x 3 1/2-inch angel cake pan - 12 cups
10 x 3 3/4-inch Bundt or Crownburst pan - 12 cups
9 x 3 1/2-inch fancy tube mold - 12 cups
10 x 4-inch fancy tube mold (Kugelhupf) - 16 cups
10 x 4-inch angel cake pan - 18 cups
 
 
Subsitutions for Baking

Product

Measure

Substitute

Arrowroot 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
Baking Powder 1 teaspoon

 

1 tablespoon

1/3 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda plus 1 1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar

Brown Sugar, Light Brown 1 cup Add 2 tablespoons molasses per cup of white sugar
Brown Sugar, Dark Brown 1 cup Add 3 tablespoons molasses per cup of white sugar
Cake Flour, sifted 1 cup 1 cup less 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour
Chocolate, Unsweetened 1 ounce 3 tablespoons cocoa plus    1 tablespoon butter or margarine
Confectioners' Sugar
    (Powdered Sugar)
1 cup 1 cup sugar plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch (processed together in food processor)
Corn Syrup, Light 1 cup 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water
Cornstarch 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour OR 1 tablespoon arrowroot OR  4 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca
Cocoa, Dutch Process 3/4 cup Add 1/4 teaspoon baking soda to 3/4 cup regular cocoa powder to neutralize it
Flour, All-purpose 1 cup 1 cup cake flour plus 2 tablespoons
Flour, Cake 1 cup


1 cup

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons  all-purpose flour

2/3 cup cornstarch plus 1/3 cup  all-purpose flour, sifted together

Flour, Self-rising 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour plus    1 teaspoon baking powder  and 1/2 teaspoon salt
Flour, Soft 1 cup 2/3 cup cornstarch plus 1/3 cup all-purpose flour, sifted together
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water
Marshmallow Creme
1 (7-ounce) jar 1 (16-ounce) package
 marshmallows, melted, plus 3 1/2 tablespoons light corn syrup
Pecans, chopped 1 cup 1 cup regular oats, toasted
    (in baked products)
Tapioca 1 tablespoon 1 1/2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
Unsweetened Chocolate 1 square 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa  powder plus 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or vegetable shortening OR
3 tablespoons carob plus
2 tablespoons water
Yeast, Compressed 1 cake
1 envelope or 2 teaspoons active dry yeast

Substitutions for Dairy

Product

Measure

Substitute

Butter (for sauting) 1 tablespoon 1 T. olive oil
Buttermilk 1 cup 1 T. vinegar or lemon
    juice plus sweet milk to
    equal 1 C.

Mix 1/2 C. evaporated milk plus 1/2 C. lukewarm water - add 1 T. white vinegar. Let stand at room temperature for 30 minutes.

1 C. plain yogurt

Cream, light 1 cup 3/4 C. milk plus 3 T. butter or margarine (for use in cooking and baking)

1 C. evaporated milk, undiluted

Cream, heavy 1 cup 3/4 C. milk plus 1/3 C. butter or margarine (for use in cooking and baking)
Cream, whipped 1 cup Chill a 13 ounce can of evaporated milk for 12 hours. Add 1 tsp. lemon juice. Whip until stiff.
Egg White 1 white (2 tablespoons) 2 T. thawed frozen egg white

2 tsp. sifted, dry egg white powder plus 2 T. lukewarm water

Egg Yolk 1 yolk
(1 1/2 tablespoons)
2 T. sifted, dry egg yolk powder plus 2 tsp. water

1 1/3 T. thawed frozen egg yolk

Eggs 2 large

1 egg


2 eggs


3 eggs

3 small

1 tsp. gelatine, 3 T. cold water, 2 T. plus 1 tsp. boiling water

2 tsp. gelatine, 1/3 C. cold water, 2 T. plus 1 tsp. boiling water

1 T. gelatine, 1/3 C. cold water, 1/3 C. boiling water

Half-and-half 1 cup 7/8 C. milk plus 1/2 T. butter or margarine

1 C. evaporated milk, undiluted

Mascarpone   1 part ricotta cheese to 2 parts whipping cream
Milk, fresh 1 cup 1/2 C. evaporated milk plus 1/2 C. water

3 to 5 T. nonfat dry milk solids in 1 C. water

Milk, skim 1 cup 3 to 4 T. dry nonfat milk solids plus 1 C. water
Milk, sour 1 cup 1 T. lemon juice or vinegar plus milk to make 1 C.
Milk, whole 1 cup 1 C. reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 tsp. butter or margarine

1/2 C. evaporated milk plus 1/2 C. water

4 T. whole dry milk plus 1 C. water, or follow manufacturer's directions

1 C. fruit juice or 1 C. potato water (for use in baking)

1/4 C. nonfat dry milk plus 2 tsp. butter or margarine plus 7/8 C. water

Milnot (canned evaporated milk)   Half-and-half or evaporated milk
Sour Cream, commercial (for cooking purposes) 8-ounce carton 1 T. lemon juice plus  evaporated milk to equal 1 C.

3 T. butter plus 7/8 C. sour milk

1 C. plain yogurt plus 3 T. melted butter

1 C. plain  yogurt plus 1 T. cornstarch

1 C. cottage cheese plus 1/4 C. buttermilk plus 1/2 tsp. lemon juice blended until smooth

Sour Cream, commercial (for topping purposes) 1 cup 1 C. cottage cheese and sugar to taste (a drop or two of vanilla extract may be added for better taste). Blend in blender.
Sour Cream, heavy 1 cup 1/3 C. butter plus 2/3 C. milk
Sour Cream, for dip 1 cup 1 C. plain nonfat yogurt
Whipped Cream 1 cup 1 sliced banana and 1 egg white, beaten until stiff

Chill a 13 ounce can of evaporated milk for 12 hours. Add 1 teaspoon lemon juice. Whip until stiff.

Whipping Cream 1 cup 3/4 C. milk plus 1/3 C. melted butter (for baking only - will not whip)
Yogurt, plain 1 cup 1 C. buttermilk or sour milk

1 C. sour cream

1 C. cottage cheese, blended until smooth

 
 
 
Misc. Substitutions
 

Product

Measure

Substitute

Balsamic Vinegar 1/2 cup 1/2 cup red wine vinegar
    (slight flavor difference)
Brandy 1 tablespoon 1/4 teaspoon brandy extract
    plus 1 tablespoon water
Catsup 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup
    honey and 2 tablespoons
    vinegar (for use in cooked
    mixtures)
Chili Sauce 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup
    honey and 2 tablespoons
    vinegar (for use in cooked
    mixtures)
Chocolate, Unsweetened 1 ounce 3 tablespoons cocoa plus
    1 tablespoon butter or
    margarine
Cornstarch 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour OR
    1 tablespoon arrowroot OR
    4 teaspoons quick-cooking
    tapioca
Cream Sauce 1 1/2 cups 1 can condensed cream-style
    soup plus 1/4 cup liquid
Dry White Wine 1/4 cup 1/4 cup dry white vermouth
Fruit Juice, for cooking 1 cup 1 cup brewed spicy herb tea
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup
    water
Lemon Juice 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon vinegar
Marsala 1/4 cup 1/4 cup dry white wine plus
    1 teaspoon brandy
Molasses 1 cup 1 cup honey plus
    1 tablespoon brown sugar
Mustard, Dry 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
Mustard, Prepared (wet) 1 teaspoon 1/4 teaspoon dried mustard plus
    3/4 teaspoon vinegar
Nutella Quantity desired Melt semi-sweet chocolate;
   remove from heat, then
   whisk in an equal amount
   of unsalted hazelnut butter
   until blended.
Sweet'n Low 2 teaspoons
2 1/2 teaspoons
4 teaspoons
8 teaspoons
1/4 C. granulated sugar
1/3 C. granulated sugar
1/2 C. granulated sugar
1 C. granulated sugar
1 1/2 teaspoons
2 teaspoons
1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons
6 packets
8 packets
12 packets
24 packets
Tapioca 1 tablespoon 1 1/2 tablespoons all-purpose
    flour (for thickening)
Tomato Juice 1 cup 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus
    1/2 cup water
Tomato Sauce 2 cups 3/4 cup tomato paste plus
    1 cup water
 
 
Seasoning Substitutions
 

Product

Measure

Substitute

Allspice, ground 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
Apple Pie Spice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg, and 1/8 teaspoon ground cardamom
Chives, chopped 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon chopped scallion (green onion) tops
Garlic Clove 1 medium 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder or minced dried garlic
Garlic Salt 1 teaspoon 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder plus 7/8 teaspoon salt
Ginger, candied 1 tablespoon 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger
Gingerroot, fresh, grated 1 tablespoon 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger
Herbs, fresh 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon dried herbs or 1/4 teaspoon powdered herbs
Horseradish, fresh, grated 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons prepared horseradish
Mustard, dry 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
Orange Peel, dried 1 tablespoon 1 1/2 teaspoons orange extract or 1 tablespoon grated orange rind
Parsley, fresh, chopped 1/4 cup 1 tablespoon dried parsley flakes
Pumpkin Pie Spice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon,1/4 teaspoon ground ginger, 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice and 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg
Vanilla Bean 1 one-inch piece 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
 
 
Substitutions for Spices
 

Product

Measure

Substitute

Allspice, ground 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
Apple Pie Spice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg, plus 1/8 teaspoon ground cardamom
Chives, chopped 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon chopped green onion tops
Garlic clove 1 medium 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder or minced dried garlic
Garlic Salt 1 teaspoon 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder plus 7/8 teaspoon salt
Ginger, candied 1 tablespoon 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger
Gingerroot, fresh, grated 1 tablespoon 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger
Herbs, fresh 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon dried herbs or 1/4 teaspoon powdered herbs
Horseradish, fresh, grated 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons prepared horseradish
Mustard, dry 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
Orange Peel, dried 1 tablespoon 1 1/2 teaspoons orange extract or 1 tablespoon grated orange rind
Parsley, fresh, chopped 1/4 cup 1 tablespoon dried parsley flakes
Pumpkin Pie Spice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger, 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice, plus 1/8 teaspoon round nutmeg
Vanilla Bean 1 (1-inch) piece 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
 
 
 
 
 
Heirloom Measurements
 
1 wineglass 1/4 cup
1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
1 gill 1/2 cup
1 teacup a scant 3/4 cup
1 coffee cup a scant cup
1 tumbler 1 cup
1 peck 2 gallons - dry
1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one finger
1 saltspoon 1/4 teaspoon
1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
1 drachma 1/8 ounce
60 drops thick fluid 1 teaspoon
1 ounce 4 1/2 tablespoons allspice, cinnamon, curry , paprika or dry mustard
or 4 tablespoons cloves or prepared mustard
or 3 1/2 tablespoons nutmeg or pepper
or 3 tablespoons sage, cream of tartar or cornstarch
or 2 tablespoons salt or any liquid
1 pound 2 cups liquid
or 4 cups flour
or 8 medium size eggs with shells
or 10 eggs without shells
or 2 1/2 cups confectioners' sugar or packed brown sugar
or 4 cups grated cabbage, cranberries, coffee or chopped celery
or 3 cups cornmeal
or 2 cups uncooked rice
or 2 3/4 cups raisins or dried currants
Butter the size of a egg 1/4 cup or 2 ounces
Butter the size of a walnut 1 tablespoon
Butter the size of a hazelnut 1 teaspoon

 

Temperatures

Very slow oven below 300F
Slow oven 300F
Moderately slow oven 325F
Moderate oven 350F
Moderately hot oven 375F
Quick oven 375 - 400F
Hot oven 400 - 425F
Very hot oven 450 - 475F
Extremely hot oven 500F or more
 
 
 
 
Substituting with Honey

1 cup honey = 1 cup sugar but decrease the liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup for each cup of honey added.

Add 1 tablespoon honey to your favorite cake mix recipe for added flavor.

Lower the oven temperature 25 degrees when baking foods in which honey has been substituted for sugar

Equivalent Weights and Measures

a dash = 8 drops liquid 1 cup = 16 tablespoons
1 teaspoon = 60 drops 2 cups = 1 pint (16 fluid ounces)
3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon 4 cups = 1 quart
4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup 4 quarts = 1 gallon
5 tablespoons + 1 teaspoon = 1/3 cup 1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup 1/3 cup = 5 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon
16 tablespoons = 1 cup 2/3 cup = 10 tablespoons plus 2 teaspoons
2 tablespoons (liquid) = 1 ounce 3/4 cup = 12 tablespoons
1 cup = 8 fluid ounces, 1/2 pint 1 bushel = 4 pecks
1 jigger = 1 1/2 fluid ounces (3 tablespoons) 8 to 10 egg whites = 1 cup
12 to 14 egg yolks = 1 cup 2 cups granulated sugar = 1 pound
28 saltine crackers - 1 cup crumbs 4 slices bread = 1 cup crumbs
3 1/2 to 4 cups unsifted confectioners'
    sugar
= 1 pound
14 square graham crackers = 1 cup crumbs
2 1/4 cups packed brown sugar = 1 pound 22 vanilla wafers = 1 cup crumbs
1 cup unwhipped cream = 2 cups whipped 1 to 1 1/4 cups uncooked macaroni = 2 cups cooked
4 cups sifted flour = 1 pound 1 to 1 1/4 cups uncooked noodles = 2 cups cooked
4 1/2 cups cake flour = 1 pound 7 oz. spaghetti = 4 cups cooked
3 1/2 C. unsifted whole wheat flour = 1 pound 1/4 lb. crumbled Bleu cheese = 1 cup
1 peck = 8 quarts 1 liter liquid = 1.06 quarts, 2.1 pints, 0.26 gallon
1 gram = 1/3 ounce 1 liter dry = 4.23 cups
1 dram = 1/16 ounce 1 cup = 250 milliliters (ml)
1 kilo = 2.20 pounds 1 teaspoon = 5 milliliters (ml)
1 meter = 39.37 inches 1 pint = 570 ML (1)
1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds 1 gallon = 4.54 liters (1)
1/4 cup = 62 1/2 milliliters (ml) 1 quart = 1.14 liter (l)
1 tablespoon = 15 milliliters (ml)  
1 oz. [28g] ungrated cheese = 1/4 cup [50ml] grated cheese

2 oz. [56g] ungrated cheese = 1/2 cup [125ml] grated

4 oz. [100g] ungrated cheese = 1 cup [250ml] grated

 
 
 
Food Measurements and Yields
 

Food

Weight or Count

Measure or Yield

Apples 1 pound (3 medium) 3 cups sliced
Bacon 8 slices cooked 1/2 cup crumbled
Bananas 1 pound (3 medium) 2 1/2 cups sliced
about 2 cups mashed
Beans, dried 1 pound 6 cups cooked
Beans, green or wax 1 pound 3 cups cut
Beef, cooked 5 oz. 1 cup cubed
Bell Pepper 1 medium 1 cup chopped
Bread 1 pound
About 1 1/2 slices
1 slice
12 to 16 slices
1 cup soft bread crumbs
1/3 cup dry crumbs
Butter or margarine 1 pound
Size of an egg
2 tablespoons
2 cups or 4 sticks
About 1/4 cup
1 ounce
Cabbage, raw 1 pound 4 cups shredded
Candied fruit or peels 1/2 pound (8 ounces) 1 cup unchopped
1 1/4 cups chopped
Canned fruit 16 to 20 oz. can 1 3/4 to 2 cups drained fruit
Canned vegetables 16 oz. can 2 cups drained vegetables
Carrots 1/2 pound
2 medium
1 1/2 medium
1 1/4 cups chopped
1 cup sliced
1 cup shredded
Cauliflorets 1 pound 3 cups
Cereal, flakes 3 cups uncrushed 1 cup crushed
Celery 2 medium stalks 1 cup sliced
Cheese, American 1 pound About 4 cups shredded
Cheese, Cheddar 1 pound
4 ounces
About 4 cups shredded
1 cup
Cheese, Cottage 1 pound
8 ounces
2 cups
1 cup
Cheese, Cream 3-ounce package
8-ounce package
6 tablespoons
1 cup
Cherries 4 cups unpitted 2 cups pitted
Chocolate, baking 1 square 1 ounce
Chocolate Chips (morsels) 6-ounce package
12-ounce package
1 cup
2 cups
Chocolate Wafers 1 cup fine 19 wafers
Cocoa 1 pound 4 cups
Coconut, flaked or shredded 1 pound
4 ounces
5 cups
1 1/3 ups
Coffee 1 pound 80 tablespoons
40 cups perked
Cookies, Chocolate Wafers 19 wafers 1 cup crumbs
Cookies, Vanilla Wafers 22 wafers 1 cup finely crushed
Corn 2 medium ears 1 cup kernels
Cornmeal 1 pound 3 cups
Crab, in shell 1 pound 3/4 to 1 cup flaked
Crackers, graham 14 squares 1 cup fine crumbs
Crackers, saltine 28 squares 1 cup finely crushed
Cranberries 1 quart
1 pound
6 to 7 cups cranberry sauce
4 cups
Crawfish, whole 1 pound unpeeled 3 to 4 ounces peeled tail meat
Crawfish, tails 1 pound unpeeled 1 to 2 cups meat
Cream, whipping 1 cup
 
2 cups whipped
Cucumber 1 small to medium 1 cup chopped
Dates, pitted 1 cup (1/2 pint) 3 cups chopped
Dates, unpitted 1 pound
8-ounce package
1 1/2 cups chopped
1 cup
Eggs, whole 5 large
9 medium
1 pound
1 cup
Eggs, whites 8 to 11 1 cup
Eggs, yolks 12 to 14 1 cup
Flour, all-purpose 1 pound
1 ounce
4 cups, unsifted
4 tablespoons
Flour, cake 1 pound 4 3/4 to 5 cups sifted
Flour, whole wheat 1 pound 3 1/2 cups unsifted
Frozen fruit 10 ounce package 1 1/4 cups
Frozen vegetables 9 to 10 ounce pakage 2 cups thawed vegetables
Gelatine, Knox 1 envelope
2 envelopes
2 1/4 teaspoons
1 1/2 tablespoons
Green bell pepper 1 large 1 cup diced
Lemon 1 medium 2 to 3 tablespoons juice
2 teaspoons grated rind
Lettuce 1 pound head 6 1/4 cups torn
Lime 1 medium 1 1/2 to 2 tablespoons juice
1 1/2 teaspoons grated rind
Macaroni 4 ounces (1 cup) 2 1/4 cups cooked
  1 pound 9 cups cooked
Marshmallow Fluff (Creme) 1 tablespoon
1 (7 1/2 oz.) jar
1 (16 1/2 oz.) tub
1 marshmallow
2 1/2 cups Fluff or 32 marshmallows
5 cups or 5 1/2 dozen marshmallows
Marshmallows 11 large
10 miniature
1 cup
1 large marshmallow
Marshmallows, miniature 1/2 pound 4 1/2 cups
Milk, evaporated 5.33-ounce can
13-ounce can
2/3 cup
1 5/8 cups
Milk, fresh 1 pound 2 cups
Milk, sweetened condensed 14-ounce can 1 1/4 cups
Mushrooms, fresh 3 cups (8 ounces) 1 cup sliced
Noodles 1 pound dry 9 cups cooked
Nuts, almonds 1 pound unshelled
1 pound shelled
1 to 1 3/4 cups nutmeats
3 1/2 cups nutmeats
Nuts, peanuts 1 pound unshelled
1 pound shelled
2 1/4 cups nutmeats
3 cups nutmeats
Nuts, pecans 1 pound unshelled
1 pound shelled
2 1/4 cups nutmeats
4 cups
Nuts, walnuts 1 pound unshelled
1 pound shelled
1 2/3 cups nutmeats
4 cups nutmeats
Oats, quick-cooking 1 cup 1 3/4 cups cooked
Onion 1 medium 1/2 cup chopped
Orange 1 medium 1/3 to 1/2 cup juice
2 tablespoons grated rind (zest)
Pasta 1 pound

 

1 1/2 pounds

Appetizer or side dish for 6 people
    with a light sauce
Main dish for 6 people with a
    substantial sauce
Main dish for 6 people with a light sauce
Peaches 2 medium 1 cup sliced
Pears 2 medium 1 cup sliced
Peas in the pod 1 pound 1 cup shelled
Potatoes, white 3 medium 2 cups cubed cooked
1 3/4 cups mashed
3 cups grated
Potatoes, sweet 3 medium 3 cups sliced
Prunes 1 (12-ounce) package 2 cups pitted
Raisins, seedless 1 pound 3 cups
Rice, long-grain 1 cup
1 pound
3 to 4 cups cooked
2 1/2 cups uncooked or 8 cups  cooked
Rice, pre-cooked (instant) 1 cup 2 cups cooked
Rice, wild 1 cup 3 cups cooked
Salt, coarse or kosher 1 ounce 2 tablespoons
Salt, table 1 ounce 1 1/2 tablespoons
Scallions (green onions) 9 (with tops) 1 cup sliced
Shortening 2 cups 1 pound (16 ounces)
Shrimp, raw in shell 1 1/2 pounds 2 cups (3/4 pound) cleaned, cooked
Sour Cream 8 ounces 1 cup
Spaghetti, uncooked 7 ounces About 4 cups cooked
Strawberries 1 quart 4 cups sliced
Sugar, brown 1 pound 2 2/3 cups firmly packed
Sugar, granulated 1 pound 2 cups
Sugar, powdered (confectioners') 1 pound 2 1/2 cups unsifted
4 cups sifted
Tea 1 pound 120 servings
Tomato 1 medium 1 cup chopped
Vanilla Wafers 22 wafers 1 cup crumbs
Whipping cream 1 cup 2 cups whipped
Yeast 1 cake
1/4 ounce package
1 package active dry yeast
2 1/2 teaspoons
Zucchini 1 medium 2 cups sliced
 
 
 
 
Crockpot Conversion Chart
 

Original Recipe

Cook on LOW (180 to 200F) for:

Cook on HIGH (300F) for:

1/4 to 1/2 hour 4 to 8 hours 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hours
1/2 to 1 hour 6 to 8 hours 3 to 4 hours
1 to 3 hours 8 to 16 hours 4 to 6 hours
 
 
Time Table for Cooking Turkey

Weight

Unstuffed

Stuffed

6 to 8 pounds 2 1/4 to 3 1/4 hours 3 to 3 1/2 hours
8 to 12 pounds 3 to 4 hours 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 hours
12 to 16 pounds 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 hours 4 1/2 to 5 1/2 hours
16 to 20 pounds 4 to 5 hours 5 1/2 to 6 1/2 hours
20 to 24 pounds 4 1/2 to 5 1/2 hours 6 1/2 to 7 hours
24 to 28 pounds 5 to 6 1/2 hours 7 to 8 1/2 hours